Three ets family members, v-ets, spleen focus forming virus proviral integration 1/Pu.1, and Friend leukemia integration 1 (Fli-1), were shown to be involved in retroviral mediated acute leukemias suggesting that ets family members play a crucial role in transformation. Mouse Fli-1 was shown to be involved in 75% erythroleukemias induced by Friend murine leukemia virus suggesting the possibility that Fli-1 may play a critical role in cellular transformation. Since Fli-1 maps to the mouse chromosome region syntenic with human chromosome 11q23-24, it is tempting to speculate that human Fli-1 may be involved in human sarcomas, leukemias, and lymphomas involving human chromosome 11q23-24. We have isolated complementary DNA clones representing the human homologue of Fli-1 gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the human Fli-1 gene codes for a 452-residue protein the predicted amino sequence of which shows 80% homology to the human erg-2 protein previously described. A 3.5-kilobase transcript of the human Fli-1 gene was observed in different cells. Sequence analysis revealed two domains of ets homology, one at the 5' and the other at the 3' end of the Fli-1 gene. This 3'-ets homology domain, which is mainly responsible for DNA binding activity, is seen in all the ets family members; however, the 5'-ets homology region is conserved in only five genes, Fli-1, c-ets-1, ets-2, GABP-alpha, and erg, suggesting a common biological function which is shared among these genes. Interestingly, mouse and human Fli-1 transcripts contain highly homologous 5'-untranslated region suggesting that this conserved region may play an important role in the posttranscriptional regulation of the Fli-1 transcript.