Botulinum neurotoxin appears to undergo structural alterations after synthesis and also before it inhibits neurotransmitter release. Discussions and conjectures are presented in this context: 1. At what sites on the 150 kDa neurotoxin does posttranslational proteolytic processing occur? 2. Does neurotransmitter inhibition depend on separation of a segment of the neurotoxin from the rest of the molecule? 3. At what step in the intoxication pathway does activation of neurotoxin (enhanced lethality following limited proteolysis) manifest? 4. Can the receptor binding parameters (based on bovine brain synaptosome and lipid membrane), channel forming property (lipid bilayer membrane) and intracellular inhibitory activity (based on permeabilized chromaffin and PC 12 cells) provide clues to differences in the lethal potency between the neurotoxin serotypes? In addition, the following issues are considered: 5. The spontaneous fragmentation of isolated 50 kDa light chain, after its separation from 100 kDa heavy chain, 6. Effect of specific chemical modification of Arg, His, Lys, Trp, Tyr and Asp/Glu residues of types A, B and E neurotoxins on lethality and antigenicity, and 7. Development of second generation toxoids.