Many organisms among the different kingdoms store reserve lipids in discrete subcellular organelles called lipid bodies. In plants, lipid bodies can be found in seeds but also in fruits (olives, ...), and in leaves (plastoglobules). These organelles protect plant lipid reserves against oxidation and hydrolysis until seed germination and seedling establishment. They can be stabilized by specific structural proteins, namely the oleosins and caleosins, which act as natural emulsifiers. Considering the putative role of some of them in controlling the size of lipid bodies, these proteins may constitute important targets for seed improvement both in term of oil seed yield and optimization of technological processes for extraction of oil and storage proteins. We present here an overview of the data on the structure of these proteins, which are scarce, and sometimes contradictory and on their functional roles.