Applying an in situ cell fractionation procedure, we analyzed structural systems of the cell nucleus for the presence of mature and replicating simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA. Replicating SV40 DNA intermediates were tightly and quantitatively associated with the nuclear matrix, indicating that elongation processes of SV40 DNA replication proceed at this structure. Isolated nuclei as well as nuclear matrices were able to continue SV40 DNA elongation under replication conditions in situ, arguing for a coordinated and functional association of SV40 DNA and large T molecules at nuclear structures. SV40 DNA replication also was terminated at the nuclear matrix. While the bulk of newly synthesized, mature SV40 DNA molecules then remained at this structure, some left the nuclear matrix and accumulated at the chromatin.