Structural changes in the colonic transplant were studied after esophagoplasty, carried out for post-burn cicatricial strictures of the esophagus. It was shown that artificial esophagus was liable to hypotony and deformation in delayed periods after reconstructive interventions. Regeneratory and adaptive reactions in the mucosa underlie its restructuring, while under pathological conditions proliferative catarrhal changes predominated in the artificial esophagus. The leading pathomorphological characteristics of the colonic transplant are epithelial degeneration, active, sometimes unbalanced proliferation, hyperplasia and hypersecretion of goblet cells, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the stroma paralleled by slight sclerosis. Modifications of the ultrastructural organization of cell populations in the Lieberkuhn crypts are determined by the intensity of pathological processes and are aimed at realization of the cytoprotective potential of the transplant mucosa.