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Structural determinants of the agonist-independent association of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors with coactivators.

Authors
  • Molnár, Ferdinand
  • Matilainen, Merja
  • Carlberg, Carsten
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Publisher
American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
Publication Date
Jul 15, 2005
Volume
280
Issue
28
Pages
26543–26556
Identifiers
PMID: 15888456
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Lipid homeostasis is controlled by various nuclear receptors (NRs), including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARalpha, delta, and gamma), which sense lipid levels and regulate their metabolism. Here we demonstrate that human PPARs have a high basal activity and show ligand-independent coactivator (CoA) association comparable with the NR constitutive androstane receptor. Using PPARgamma as an example, we found that four different amino acid groups contribute to the ligand-independent stabilization of helix 12 of the PPAR ligand-binding domain. These are: (i) Lys329 and Glu499, mediating a charge clamp-type stabilization of helix 12 via a CoA bridge; (ii) Glu352, Arg425, and Tyr505, directly stabilizing the helix via salt bridges and hydrogen bonds; (iii) Lys347 and Asp503, interacting with each other as well as contacting the CoA; and (iv) His351, Tyr(355), His477, and Tyr501, forming a hydrogen bond network. These amino acids are highly conserved within the PPAR subfamily, suggesting that the same mechanism may apply for all three PPARs. Phylogenetic trees of helix 12 amino acid and nucleotide sequences of all crystallized NRs and all human NRs, respectively, indicated a close relationship of PPARs with constitutive androstane receptor and other constitutive active members of the NR superfamily. Taking together, the ligand-independent tight control of the position of the PPAR helix 12 provides an effective alternative for establishing an interaction with CoA proteins. This leads to high basal activity of PPARs and provides an additional view on PPAR signaling.

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