Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare malignant intrathoracic tumor primarily affecting children under 5 years of age. PPBs are histologically divided into 3 subtypes: Type 1 PPBs are composed of multiple cysts, and type 3 is a solid lesion with a variable morphologic appearance. Type 2 has a mixed morphology consisting of cystic and solid areas. The genetics of PPB are poorly understood. We analyzed 16 cases of the Kiel Paediatric Tumor Registry with the diagnosis of PPB by comparative genomic hybridization and confirmed some genetic changes by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Furthermore, we performed immunohistochemistry to evaluate insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF1R) protein expression. Frequent findings by comparative genomic hybridization were losses on 4q, 5q, 9p and gains on chromosome 8, 17, and 20q. Genomic amplification was observed in 5 cases, 4 related to 15q25qter and 1 to 1p. Fluorescence in situ hybridization could confirm 7 gains of chromosome 8 (7/16, 44%) and 4 amplifications of the IGF1R-gene on 15q26 (4/16, 25%). All of the tumors with IGF1R amplification were type 3 PPBs. One of the PPBs with gain of chromosome 8 was a type 2 tumor and 6 tumors were type 3 PPBs. All but one PPB showed an IGF1R expression by immunohistochemistry. In our series of 16 PPBs, 25% of the tumors have an amplification of the IGF1R gene and 44% show a gain of chromosome 8. All of the tumors with IGF1R amplification were PPBs type 3, indicating that it is a later event in tumor progression, while the gain of chromosome 8 was found in both type 2 and type 3 tumors indicating that these changes are probably earlier events in tumor development. Furthermore, the strong IGF1R protein expression could be a possible therapeutic target in refractory chemoresistant PPBs.