CFS patients do not show an exaggerated secretion of LPS-induced cytokines. Although cortisol responses to stress were normal, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in CFS patients were significantly attenuated. Possible intracellular mechanisms, such as for example an enhanced sensitivity to inhibitory effects of glucocorticoids, a diminished responsivity to catecholaminergic stimulation, and a disruption of intracellular activation are discussed. Basal levels of stimulated pro-inflammatory Il-6 levels are generally related to fatigue scores. However, in CFS patients this association is of greater magnitude and can also be observed for TNF-alpha.