Cancer is evading the host's defense mechanisms leading to avoidance of immune destruction. During tumor progression, immune-evading cancer cells arise due to selective pressure from the hypoxic and nutrient-deprived microenvironment. Thus, therapies aiming at re-establishing immune destruction of pathological cells constitute innovating anti-cancer strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that selected conventional chemotherapeutic drugs increase the immunogenicity of stressed and dying cancer cells by triggering a form of cell death called immunogenic cell death (ICD), which is characterized by the release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In this review, we summarize the effects of ICD inducers on DAMP signaling leading to adjuvanticity and antigenicity. We will discuss the associated stress response pathways that cause the release of DAMPs leading to improved immune recognition and their relevance in cancer immunotherapy. Our aim is to highlight the contribution of adaptive immunity to the long-term clinical benefits of anticancer treatments and the properties of immune memory that can protect cancer patients against relapse.