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Strateško pravdanje na področju varstva pred diskriminacijo v Sloveniji : pregled prakse in možnosti nadaljnjega razvoja / Strategic litigation in the context of anti-discrimination efforts in Slovenia : case study and future development

Authors
  • Pavlica, Nika
Publication Date
Oct 22, 2022
Source
University of Ljubljana
Keywords
Language
Slovenian
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Strateško pravdanje je način uporabe sodnega postopka, pri katerem glavni cilj ni zaščititi pravic in interesov posameznika, ki nastopa kot pravdna stranka, ampak je v ospredju želja po doseganju širših družbenih sprememb. Gre torej za politično orodje, ki pa pride v poštev predvsem v primerih, ko širša javnost skupaj z zakonodajno in izvršilno vejo oblasti nima posluha za težave in potrebe določene skupnosti. Strateško pravdanje namreč ni brez tveganj in slednje velja pred začetkom pravdanja preučiti in ustrezno upoštevati. Izvor strateškega pravdanja umeščamo v petdeseta leta prejšnjega stoletja v ZDA, tj. v čas gibanja za civilne pravice. Čeprav gre za relativno mlad pravni pojav, se je z vse širšo uporabo v praksi zanj začelo zanimati precejšnje število akademikov in drugih raziskovalcev. Med številnimi sociološkimi in pravnimi deli na temo strateškega pravdanja prevladujeta predvsem dve temi, ki sta v tej diplomski nalogi tudi nekoliko podrobneje predstavljeni. Prva obravnava vprašanje, kdaj (v kakšnih okoliščinah oziroma pod katerimi pogoji) se aktivisti poslužujejo strateškega pravdanja kot orodja za doseganje sprememb v družbi. Pri drugi pa gre za obravnavo učinkovitosti strateškega pravdanja, ki je močno povezana z izhodiščno normativno kritiko, da ni prav, da sodišča posegajo v pristojnosti in delovanje drugih dveh vej oblasti. To diplomsko delo je umeščeno v kontekst boja proti diskriminaciji v Sloveniji. Po bližje obravnava strateško pravdanje, s katerim so se aktivisti zoperstavili diskriminaciji na podlagi državljanstva oziroma narodnosti, spolne usmerjenosti in etnične pripadnosti. Na podlagi analiziranih primerov magistrsko delo ponudi nekaj opažanj in predvidevanj o razvoju strateškega pravdanja v slovenskem prostoru v prihodnosti. / Strategic litigation refers to the use of legal action, whereby the goals pursued reach beyond the protection of the rights of immediate parties to the legal proceedings and instead centre around the interests of entire communities. As a tool, strategic litigation proves to be particularly useful to those who are marginalized or otherwise disregarded by a particular society. While potentially a promising tool for driving change, strategic litigation comes with its own set of risks and disadvantages that should not be disregarded and should instead be properly taken into account by legal practitioners. Strategic litigation was first noticeably used as part of the fight against racism by the civil rights movement in the United States of America. Since then, the field of legal practice expanded and with it so did the overall interest of the academia. The following thesis focuses on two major themes of the existing research today. Firstly, the thesis addresses the question of why certain individuals or groups turn to the courts as part of their quest for systemic change while others do not. Secondly, it deals with the question of effectiveness of strategic litigation which is closely linked with the critique levied against strategic litigation for being anti-democratic and elitist in nature. The thesis places its analysis in the context of the anti-discrimination efforts in Slovenia. Case studies include examples of strategic litigation, whereby the activists faced discrimination based on nationality, sexual orientation and ethnicity.

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