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Strategies for Implementing Occupational eMental Health Interventions: Scoping Review

  • Bernard, Renaldo M1
  • Toppo, Claudia2
  • Raggi, Alberto2
  • de Mul, Marleen3
  • de Miquel, Carlota4, 5
  • Pugliese, Maria Teresa2
  • van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M6
  • Ortiz-Tallo, Ana5, 7
  • Salvador-Carulla, Luis8
  • Lukersmith, Sue8
  • Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona3
  • Merecz-Kot, Dorota9
  • Staszewska, Kaja10
  • Sabariego, Carla1, 11, 11
  • 1 Swiss Paraplegic Research, Nottwil , (Switzerland)
  • 2 Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano , (Italy)
  • 3 Erasmus University, Rotterdam , (Netherlands)
  • 4 Universitat de Barcelona, Sant Boi de Llobregat , (Spain)
  • 5 Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Madrid , (Spain)
  • 6 University of York, York , (United Kingdom)
  • 7 Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid , (Spain)
  • 8 University of Canberra, Canberra , (Australia)
  • 9 University of Lodz, Lodz , (Poland)
  • 10 Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz , (Poland)
  • 11 University of Lucerne, Lucerne , (Switzerland)
Published Article
Journal of Medical Internet Research
JMIR Publications Inc.
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2022
DOI: 10.2196/34479
PMID: 35648457
PMCID: PMC9201704
PubMed Central
  • Review
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Background The implementation of eMental health interventions, especially in the workplace, is a complex process. Therefore, learning from existing implementation strategies is imperative to ensure improvements in the adoption, development, and scalability of occupational eMental health (OeMH) interventions. However, the implementation strategies used for these interventions are often undocumented or inadequately reported and have not been systematically gathered across implementations in a way that can serve as a much-needed guide for researchers. Objective The objective of this scoping review was to identify implementation strategies relevant to the uptake of OeMH interventions that target employees and detail the associated barriers and facilitation measures. Methods A scoping review was conducted. The descriptive synthesis was guided by the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Results A total of 31 of 32,916 (0.09%) publications reporting the use of the web-, smartphone-, telephone-, and email-based OeMH interventions were included. In all, 98 implementation strategies, 114 barriers, and 131 facilitators were identified. The synthesis of barriers and facilitators produced 19 facilitation measures that provide initial recommendations for improving the implementation of OeMH interventions. Conclusions This scoping review represents one of the first steps in a research agenda aimed at improving the implementation of OeMH interventions by systematically selecting, shaping, evaluating, and reporting implementation strategies. There is a dire need for improved reporting of implementation strategies and combining common implementation frameworks with more technology-centric implementation frameworks to fully capture the complexities of eHealth implementation. Future research should investigate a wider range of common implementation outcomes for OeMH interventions that also focus on a wider set of common mental health problems in the workplace. This scoping review’s findings can be critically leveraged by discerning decision-makers to improve the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of OeMH interventions.

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