Though large construction companies in Pakistan are following various safety management systems, unsafe behaviours and unsafe conditions are at times noticed resulting in fatal accidents. This necessitates exploring the root causes of such accidents as well as identifying the significant safety climate (SC) factors that can positively influence the safety performance (SP) in the Pakistani construction industry (CI). For this study, a mixed-method research strategy comprising concurrent and sequential research methods was adopted. The study concludes that accidents in the Pakistani CI can be reduced by: strict enforcement of safety rules and regulations by the Government agencies; guaranteed provision of a safety budget and the introduction of safety incentives by the clients; adequate provision of safety training and resources by the contractors; and giving due importance to past SP while selecting the subcontractors. A 24-item SC scale, comprised of four SC factors, was developed and validated for the Pakistani CI. The study also verified the significant positive impact of SC on safety compliance and safety participation, and the negative impact on the number of self-reported accidents/injuries. The analysis of demographic variables confirmed that the employees in the age group of 20 years or below, and working for more than 40 hours per week, have a tendency towards unsafe behaviour. The study adds to the body of knowledge by highlighting the implications of adopting an existing SC scale across the region and culture, and revealing the deviations in SC dimensions. Caution should be exercised while generalizing the research findings to other sectors of CI. Nonetheless, the study’s robust methodology can be replicated in other industries and regions for element prioritization and SC investigation.