The Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminate structural components used in the aerospace and military domains require high precision and strong stability. Usually the deformation of these structural components is difficult to be measured directly during operation, but the deformation of the CFRP laminate structure can be reconstructed with strain information. The CFRP laminate structure can be designed to adapt to the requirements of different applications through layering of variable thickness. In this paper, aiming at the discontinuous stiffness and strength of the variable laminations within the CFRP laminate structure, the BP neural network is proposed to be applied to the deformation reconstruction of CFRP laminates. With strain as input and deformation as output, based on a large amount of experimental data, the BP neural network model between strain and deformation is obtained through training. In this paper, CFRP test piecs with equal thickness and variable thickness were designed, and the corresponding strain-deformation reconstruction experimental system was constructed. The strain on the surface of CFRP test piece was measured by the fiber grating sensor, and the deformation of the test piece was measured by the laser displacement sensor. The comparative analysis between the predicted deflection obtained by neural network reconstruction and the actual measured deflection shows that BP neural network can reconstruct the structural deformation of CFRP laminates within certain error range.