1. Re-feeding starved rats increased the biogenesis of sterols in livers, with highest activity at 6h after the start of food intake. 2. Complete deficiency of protein or fat and partial deficiency of carbohydrate in the diet had no effect on sterol biogenesis. 3. Glucose, citrate or pyruvate, when administered intraperitoneally to starved rats, stimulated the biogenesis of sterols only at high concentrations. 4. ATP given intraperitoneally at low concentrations (10mg/rat) stimulated biogenesis of sterols, but not of fatty acids, from [1-14C]acetate. This effect was also obtained with other adenosine compounds, but not with adenine or guanosine. 5. Administration of adenosine compounds to starved rats also increased the incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into sterols in liver slices and also the activity of microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. The results suggest a regulatory role for adenosine compounds in the hepatic biogenesis of isoprenoid compounds.