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Stem Cell Aging in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration and Disease

Authors
  • Yamakawa, Hiroyuki1, 2
  • Kusumoto, Dai1, 2
  • Hashimoto, Hisayuki1, 2
  • Yuasa, Shinsuke1
  • 1 (H.H.)
  • 2 Center for Preventive Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 Japan
Type
Published Article
Journal
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Mar 06, 2020
Volume
21
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/ijms21051830
PMID: 32155842
PMCID: PMC7084237
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Skeletal muscle comprises 30–40% of the weight of a healthy human body and is required for voluntary movements in humans. Mature skeletal muscle is formed by multinuclear cells, which are called myofibers. Formation of myofibers depends on the proliferation, differentiation, and fusion of muscle progenitor cells during development and after injury. Muscle progenitor cells are derived from muscle satellite (stem) cells (MuSCs), which reside on the surface of the myofiber but beneath the basement membrane. MuSCs play a central role in postnatal maintenance, growth, repair, and regeneration of skeletal muscle. In sedentary adult muscle, MuSCs are mitotically quiescent, but are promptly activated in response to muscle injury. Physiological and chronological aging induces MuSC aging, leading to an impaired regenerative capability. Importantly, in pathological situations, repetitive muscle injury induces early impairment of MuSCs due to stem cell aging and leads to early impairment of regeneration ability. In this review, we discuss (1) the role of MuSCs in muscle regeneration, (2) stem cell aging under physiological and pathological conditions, and (3) prospects related to clinical applications of controlling MuSCs.

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