We review a novel strategy for tolerance induction developed in rhesus macaques and termed STEALTH. We summarize the evolution of the STEALTH model, the results of successful trials in inducing long-term, stable transplant tolerance in rhesus kidney and diabetic islet recipients and discuss information related to the mechanism by which durable tolerance is induced. STEALTH tolerance is induced by a 3-day treatment course of CD3epsilon immunotoxin (IT) combined with a 14-day treatment with deoxyspergualin (DSG). IT causes profound depletion of sessile lymph node T cells as well as the more accessible circulating T cells. DSG, an inhibitor of HSC 70-mediated NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, arrests maturation of myeloid dendritic cells, blocks production of proinflammatory cytokines induced by IT administration, and promotes systemic production of Th2 type cytokines that persist indefinitely. Such Th2 cytokine deviation has not been reported in NHP transplant recipients. These studies provide proof of principle in a preclinical model that prevention of both acute and chronic allograft rejection, for at least 2.2-4.9 years of follow-up, can be achieved in NHP in the absence of chronic immunosuppressive drugs or other interventions. This strategy for inducing NHP tolerance is discussed in relation to current tolerance paradigms.