In response to a 1954 study revealing an iodine deficiency prevalence of 41.2% in India's Kangra District (Himachal Pradesh), a salt iodization program was launched in the district in 1963. To assess the long-term impact of this ongoing program, the prevalence of goiter was investigated in 1995 in 1358 children 8-10 years of age recruited from primary schools in 4 of the district's 13 administrative blocks. The overall prevalence of goiter was 5.7% (range, 2.4-9.0%). The median urinary iodine excretion in a subsample of 245 children was 16.5 mcg/dl. 2.5% of these children had severe iodine deficiency, 4.1% had moderate deficiency, 17.1% had mild deficiency, and 76.3% had no iodine deficiency. 77% of salt samples analyzed had adequate iodine content (15 ppm and above). These findings confirm that the universal iodization of salt represents an effective means of lowering the prevalence of iron deficiency disorders.