While it is well-evident that proper first aid would significantly promote survival and later treatment outcomes, little attention has been paid to improving its capacity in Vietnam. Thus, we conducted this study to assess the status of first aid and its associations with health outcomes among patients in traffic accidents in urban areas of Vietnam. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 413 patients in traffic accidents from October to December 2018 at six hospitals in Thai Binh province. Socio-demographics, first aid characteristics, and health outcomes were collected via face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. We used a chi-square test to determine the differences in health outcomes among those who received first aid and those without. In addition, a multivariable regression was performed to determine the factors associated with first aid. The results indicated that less than half of the patients received first aid (48.1%), and only one fourth received first aid within 10 min after an accident. The proportions of having problems with mobility, self-care, usual activities, and pain/discomfort were significantly lower among those who received first aid compared to those without it. The regression model showed that those with multiple injuries were less likely to receive first aid.