Hydrodynamics, a term apparently introduced by Daniel Bernoulli (1700–1783) to comprise hydrostatic and hydraulics, has a long history with several theoretical approaches. Here, after a descriptive introduction, we present so-called mesoscopic hydro-thermodynamics, which is also referred to as higher order generalized hydrodynamics, built within the framework of a mechanical-statistical formalism. It consists of a description of the material and heat motion of fluids in terms of the corresponding densities and their associated fluxes of all orders. In this way, movements are characterized in terms of intermediate to short wavelengths and intermediate to high frequencies. The fluxes have associated Maxwell-like times, which play an important role in determining the appropriate contraction of the description (of the enormous set of fluxes of all orders) necessary to address the characterization of the motion in each experimental setup. This study is an extension of a preliminary article: Physical Review E 91, 063011 (2015).