Big gerbils, inhabitants of desert, were found to have indices of an increased functional activity of HHNS: low content of neurosecretory material all over the system, relatively large volumes of neurosecretory cell nuclei and nucleoli, hyperemia. Under the condition of a seven-day dehydration, the neurosecretory material reduction in all links of HHNS, enlargement of neurosecretory cell nuclei and nucleoli, intensification of hyperemia were found. With the increase in dehydration time to 23 days a progressive reduction of neurosecretory material in cell processes and hypophysis are seen. However, the decrease in nuclear size takes place under the condition of continuing increase in nucleolar size both in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. Extremely intensive hyperemia of all regions of HHNS is seen. The activation of HHNS under the water-salt regime change, seen in big gerbils, is not as pronounced as in albino rats. This is, evidently, due to a specificity of the function and their osmoregulating system.