Mibefradil is a T-type Ca2+ channel antagonist with reported cross-reactivity with other classes of ion channels, including K+, Cl-, and Na+ channels. Using whole-cell voltage clamp, we examined mibefradil block of four Na+ channel isoforms expressed in human embryonic kidney cells: Nav1.5 (cardiac), Nav1.4 (skeletal muscle), Nav1.2 (brain), and Nav1.7 (peripheral nerve). Mibefradil blocked Nav1.5 in a use/frequency-dependent manner, indicating preferential binding to states visited during depolarization. Mibefradil blocked currents of all Na+ channel isoforms with similar affinity and a dependence on holding potential, and drug off-rate was slowed at depolarized potentials (k(off) was 0.024/s at -130 mV and 0.007/s at -100 mV for Nav1.5). We further probed the interaction of mibefradil with inactivated Nav1.5 channels. Neither the degree nor the time course of block was dependent on the stimulus duration, which dramatically changed the residency time of channels in the fast-inactivated state. In addition, inhibiting the binding of the fast inactivation lid (Nav1.5 ICM + MTSET) did not alter mibefradil block, confirming that the drug does not preferentially interact with the fast-inactivated state. We also tested whether mibefradil interacted with slow-inactivated state(s). When selectively applied to channels after inducing slow inactivation with a 60-s pulse to -10 mV, mibefradil (1 microM) produced 45% fractional block in Nav1.5 and greater block (88%) in an isoform (Nav1.4) that slow-inactivates more completely. Our results suggest that mibefradil blocks Na+ channels in a state-dependent manner that does not depend on fast inactivation but probably involves interaction with one or more slow-inactivated state(s).