Staphylococcus saprophyticus commonly causes urinary tract infection (UTI) in young women; in males it is found mainly in the elderly. In this study S. saprophyticus UTI occurred in 59 children (45 girls and 14 boys) below 16 years of age, of whom 20 were less than 13 years of age. The common presentation was dysuria and flank or back pain whereas fever > or = 38.5 degrees C was rare. Radiological investigation performed in 63% of the children revealed no anomalies of importance. Children with S. saprophyticus UTI appear to constitute a group with a low frequency of urinary tract anomalies and with a low risk of UTI caused by other bacteria.