A standardized protocol for the evaluation of hand disinfection by surgical scrub formulations was applied to volunteers in a multicenter trial. Povidone iodine (PVI), chlorhexidine (CHX), and a nonmedicated soap (NMS) were tested. The scrubbing procedure involved three daily hand washings for five consecutive days; surviving bacteria were counted daily after being collected in a suitable neutralizing solution. Immediate efficacy (IE), cumulative efficacy (CE), and remanent effect (RE) were calculated by reference to the control hand. Statistical analyses of IE, CE, and RE showed significant differences among the three scrub formulations. IEs of PVI and CHX were equivalent and different from IE of NMS; CE and RE of CHX were higher than those of PVI and NMS. On the basis of the statistical analysis, the population size required for further studies aimed at detecting significant differences between surgical scrub formulations could be estimated.