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Standardized Extraction Techniques for Meat Analysis with the Electronic Tongue: A Case Study of Poultry and Red Meat Adulteration

Authors
  • Zaukuu, John-Lewis Zinia
  • Gillay, Zoltan
  • Kovacs, Zoltan
Type
Published Article
Journal
Sensors
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Jan 12, 2021
Volume
21
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/s21020481
PMID: 33445458
PMCID: PMC7827137
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

The electronic tongue (e-tongue) is an advanced sensor-based device capable of detecting low concentration differences in solutions. It could have unparalleled advantages for meat quality control, but the challenges of standardized meat extraction methods represent a backdrop that has led to its scanty application in the meat industry. This study aimed to determine the optimal dilution level of meat extract for e-tongue evaluations and also to develop three standardized meat extraction methods. For practicality, the developed methods were applied to detect low levels of meat adulteration using beef and pork mixtures and turkey and chicken mixtures as case studies. Dilution factor of 1% w / v of liquid meat extract was determined to be the optimum for discriminating 1% w / w , 3% w / w , 5% w / w , 10% w / w , and 20% w / w chicken in turkey and pork in beef with linear discriminant analysis accuracies (LDA) of 78.13% (recognition) and 64.73% (validation). Even higher LDA accuracies of 89.62% (recognition) and 68.77% (validation) were achieved for discriminating 1% w / w , 3% w / w , 5% w / w , 10% w / w , and 20% w / w of pork in beef. Partial least square models could predict both sets of meat mixtures with good accuracies. Extraction by cooking was the best method for discriminating meat mixtures and can be applied for meat quality evaluations with the e-tongue.

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