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Staging of the estrous cycle and induction of estrus in experimental rodents: an update

Authors
  • Ajayi, Ayodeji Folorunsho1
  • Akhigbe, Roland Eghoghosoa1
  • 1 Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo, Nigeria , Oyo (Nigeria)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Fertility Research and Practice
Publisher
BioMed Central
Publication Date
Mar 14, 2020
Volume
6
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s40738-020-00074-3
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundDetermination of the phases of the estrous cycle and induction of estrus (heat) in experimental animals remains useful, especially in reproductive function research.Main body of the abstractThis review provides a detailed description and discusses extensively the variations observed in different phases of the estrous cycle in laboratory animals using rats and mice as examples. It also illustrates how these phases can be determined and how to induce estrus ‘heat’ when required. The phases of the estrous cycle can be determined using various methods such as visual assessment, vaginal smear/cytology, histology of female reproductive organs (vagina, uterus and ovaries), vaginal wall impedance assessment and determination of urine biochemical parameters. Female animals can be artificially brought to estrus phase ‘heat’ to make them receptive to male counterparts.ConclusionDetermination of the length and phases of the estrous cycle and induction of estrus are useful in teaching and research and evaluating the effects of drugs/chemicals on the reproductive functions.

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