Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are a relatively new type of semiconductor laser operating in the mid- to long-wave infrared. These monopolar multilayered quantum well structures can be fabricated to operate anywhere between 3.5 and 20 microm, which includes the molecular fingerprint region of the infrared. This makes them an ideal choice for infrared chemical sensing, a topic of great interest at present. Frequency stabilization and injection locking increase the utility of QCLs. We present results of locking QCLs to optical cavities, achieving relative linewidths down to 5.6 Hz. We report injection locking of one distributed feedback grating QCL with light from a similar QCL, demonstrating capture ranges of up to +/-500 MHz, and suppression of amplitude modulation by up to 49 dB. We also present various cavity-enhanced chemical sensors employing the frequency stabilization techniques developed, including the resonant sideband technique known as NICE-OHMS. Sensitivities of 9.7 x 10(-11) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2) have been achieved in pure nitrous oxide.