The ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase produces Siglec ligands for the B-cell-specific CD22 lectin and sustains humoral immune responses. Using multiple experimental approaches to elucidate the mechanisms involved, we report that ST6Gal-I deficiency induces immunoglobulin M (IgM) antigen receptor endocytosis in the absence of immune stimulation. This coincides with increased antigen receptor colocalization with CD22 in both clathrin-deficient and clathrin-enriched membrane microdomains concurrent with diminished tyrosine phosphorylation of Igα/β, Syk, and phospholipase C-γ2 upon immune activation. Codeficiency with CD22 restores IgM antigen receptor half-life at the cell surface in addition to reversing alterations in membrane trafficking and immune signaling. Diminished immune responses due to ST6Gal-I deficiency further correlate with constitutive recruitment of Shp-1 to CD22 in unstimulated B cells independent of Lyn tyrosine kinase activity and prevent autoimmune disease pathogenesis in the Lyn-deficient model of systemic lupus erythematosus, resulting in a significant extension of life span. Protein glycosylation by ST6Gal-I restricts access of antigen receptors and Shp-1 to CD22 and operates by a CD22-dependent mechanism that decreases the basal rate of IgM antigen receptor endocytosis in altering the threshold of B-cell immune activation.