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Spruce bark‐extracted lignin and tannin‐based bioresin‐adhesives : Effect of curing temperatures on the thermal properties of the resins

Authors
  • Sain, Sunanda
  • Matsakas, L.
  • Rova, U.
  • Christakopoulos, P.
  • Öman, T.
  • Skrifvars, Mikael
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2021
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/molecules26123523
OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-25915
Source
DiVA - Academic Archive On-line
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

In this study, formaldehyde‐free bioresin adhesives were synthesised from lignin and tannin, which were obtained from softwood bark. The extraction was done via organosolv treatment and hot water extraction, respectively. A non‐volatile, non‐toxic aldehyde, glyoxal, was used as a substitute for formaldehyde in order to modify the chemical structure of both the lignin and tannin. The glyoxal modification reaction was confirmed by ATR–FTIR spectroscopy. Three different resin formulations were prepared using modified lignin along with the modified tannin. The thermal properties of the modified lignin, tannin, and the bioresins were assessed by DSC and TGA. When the bioresins were cured at a high temperature (200 ℃) by compression moulding, they exhibited higher thermal stability as well as an enhanced degree of cross‐linking compared to the low temperature‐cured bioresins. The thermal properties of the resins were strongly affected by the compositions of the resins as well as the curing temperatures. 

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