Rickettsia species cause rickettsioses, which are zoonotic diseases found worldwide, and are transmitted by arthropods such as lice, fleas, ticks, and mites. In Thailand, flea infestations are common among cats and dogs. This study aimed at determining the exposure to spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) of cats in surrounding areas of Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, Muang district, Maha Sarakham province and rickettsial infection among cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, collected from dogs of the surrounding area of Waeng Noi district, Khon Kaen province. Forty-two cat sera were assessed for IgG antibody titers against SFGR by a group-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of seroreactive cats was 4.76% (2/42). DNA preparations from 23 individual cat fleas from three dogs were assessed by Rickettsia genus-specific, group-specific, and species-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays. Positive results were confirmed by ompB gene fragment sequencing. Twenty-one of 23 cat fleas were positive for Rickettsia asembonensis, and the other two DNA preparations were negative for rickettsial DNA. This study's finding indicates that companion cats and dogs in Northeast Thailand are exposed to SFGR and that exposure may be due to infection with R. asembonensis, an organism known to infect humans, monkeys, and dogs. Clinicians for humans and animals in Northeast Thailand should be aware of rickettsial infections among their patients.