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Sporulation in Ashbya gossypii

Authors
  • Wendland, Jürgen
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Fungi
Publisher
MDPI
Publication Date
Aug 29, 2020
Volume
6
Issue
3
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/jof6030157
PMID: 32872517
PMCID: PMC7558398
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous ascomycete belonging to the yeast family of Saccharomycetaceae . At the end of its growth phase Ashbya generates abundant amounts of riboflavin and spores that form within sporangia derived from fragmented cellular compartments of hyphae. The length of spores differs within species of the genus. Needle-shaped Ashbya spores aggregate via terminal filaments. A. gossypii is a homothallic fungus which may possess a and α mating types. However, the solo- MAT a type strain is self-fertile and sporulates abundantly apparently without the need of prior mating. The central components required for the regulation of sporulation, encoded by IME1, IME2, IME4, KAR4 , are conserved with Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Nutrient depletion generates a strong positive signal for sporulation via the cAMP-PKA pathway and SOK2 , which is also essential for sporulation. Strong inhibitors of sporulation besides mutations in the central regulatory genes are the addition of exogenous cAMP or the overexpression of the mating type gene MAT α2. Sporulation has been dissected using gene-function analyses and global RNA-seq transcriptomics. This revealed a role of Msn2/4, another potential PKA-target, for spore wall formation and a key dual role of the protein A kinase Tpk2 at the onset of sporulation as well as for breaking the dormancy of spores to initiate germination. Recent work has provided an overview of ascus development, regulation of sporulation and spore maturation. This will be summarized in the current review with a focus on the central regulatory genes. Current research and open questions will also be discussed.

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