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Sporotrichosis In Immunocompromised Hosts

Authors
  • Queiroz-Telles, Flavio
  • Buccheri, Renata
  • Benard, Gil
Publication Date
Jan 11, 2019
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Sporotrichosis is a global implantation or subcutaneous mycosis caused by several members of the genus Sporothrix, a thermo-dimorphic fungus. This disease may also depict an endemic profile, especially in tropical to subtropical zones around the world. Interestingly, sporotrichosis is an anthropozoonotic disease that may be transmitted to humans by plants or by animals, especially cats. It may be associated with rather isolated or clustered cases but also with outbreaks in different periods and geographic regions. Usually, sporotrichosis affects immunocompetent hosts, presenting a chronic to subacute evolution course. Less frequently, sporotrichosis may be acquired by inhalation, leading to disseminated clinical forms. Both modes of infection may occur in immunocompromised patients, especially associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but also diabetes mellitus, chronic alcoholism, steroids, anti-TNF treatment, hematologic cancer and transplanted patients. Similar to other endemic mycoses caused by dimorphic fungi, sporotrichosis in immunocompromised hosts may be associated with rather more severe clinical courses, larger fungal burden and longer periods of systemic antifungal therapy. A prolonged outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis is in progress in Brazil and potentially crossing the border to neighboring countries. This huge outbreak involves thousands of human and cats, including immunocompromised subjects affected by HIV and FIV (feline immunodeficiency virus), respectively. We reviewed the main epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of sporotrichosis in immunocompromised hosts.

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