To enhance the awareness of physicians treating whiplash patients, findings from previous research regarding cognitive functioning of these patients are discussed and recommendations for assessment provided. Cognitive disturbances (i.e., deficient attentional functioning and impairment of memory) are frequent complaints in patients after whiplash injury. However, few prospective studies of nonselected patients have been performed. These studies indicate that impaired cognitive functioning relates either to trauma-induced somatic symptoms (i.e., pain) or psychologic symptoms resulting from problems adjusting to trauma-related somatic symptoms. Accordingly, cognitive disturbances after whiplash show a fair rate of recovery, which parallels recovery from trauma-related somatic symptoms. Current research does not indicate disturbances in higher cognitive functions after whiplash.