We systematically analyze the effects of the derivatives of the hydrodynamic fields on axial Wigner function that describes the spin polarization vector in phase space. We have included all possible first-order derivative contributions that are allowed by symmetry and compute the associated transport functions at one-loop using the linear response theory. In addition to reproducing known effects due to the temperature gradient and vorticity, we have identified a number of potentially significant contributions that are overlooked previously. In particular, we find that the shear strength, the symmetric and traceless part of the flow gradient, will induce a quadrupole for spin polarization in the phase space. Our results, together with hydrodynamic gradients obtained from hydrodynamic simulations, can be employed as a basis for the interpretation of the Λ (anti-Λ) spin polarization measurement in heavy-ion collisions.