Chronic liver disease has been reported to be an important cause of late morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. We have examined the prevalence and nature of chronic liver disease among 538 patients with functioning renal allografts managed at the Western Infirmary, Glasgow, between 1980 and 1989. Thirty-seven patients (7 per cent) satisfied biochemical criteria for chronic liver dysfunction. Liver biopsies were obtained from 24 of these, and autopsy tissue was available from three other patients. Chronic hepatitis of variable severity was present in 15 patients, haemosiderosis in 12 patients and nodular regenerative hyperplasia in five patients. Nineteen patients (51 per cent) had serological evidence of infection with the hepatitis C virus, and one of these developed chronic hepatitis B and D infection as well. Although a variety of chronic liver diseases occurred in our transplant population, the frequency of serious sequelae from liver dysfunction was much lower than that reported from transplant centres in other countries.