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Spectroelectrochemical analysis of the Li-ion battery solid electrolyte interphase using simulated Raman spectra / Analys av anodens gränsskikt i litiumjonbatterier med spektroelektrokemi och simulerade Ramanspektra

  • Andersson, Edvin
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2020
DiVA - Academic Archive On-line
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Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) are important in today's society, powering cars and mobile devices. LIBs consist of a negative anode commonly made of graphite, and a positive cathode commonly made from transition metal oxides. Between these electrodes are separators and organic solvent based electrolyte. Due to the high potential of LIBs the electrolyte is reduced at the anode. The electrolyte reduction results in the formation of a layer called the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI), which prohibits the further breakdown of the electrolyte. Despite being researched for over50 years, the composition formation of the SEI is still poorly understood. The aim of this project is to develop strategies for efficient identification and classification of various active and intermediate components in the SEI, to, in turn, gain an understanding of the reactions taking place, which will help find routes to stabilize and tailor the composition of the SEI layer for long-term stability and optimal battery performance. For a model gold/li-ion battery electrolyte system, Raman spectra will be obtained using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) in a spectroelectrochemical application where the voltage of the working gold electrode is swept from high to low potentials. Spectra of common components of the SEI as well as similar compounds will be simulated using Density Functional Theory (DFT). The DFT data is also used to calculate the spontaneity of reactions speculated to form the SEI. The simulated data will be validated by comparing it to experimental spectra from pure substances. The spectroelectrochemical SERS results show a clear formation of Li-carbonate at the SERS substrate, as well as the decomposition of the electrolyte into other species, according to the simulated data. It is however shown that there are several issues when modelling spectra, that makes it harder to correlate the simulated spectra with the spectroelectrochemical spectra. These issues include limited knowledge of the structure of the compounds thought to form on the anode surface, and incorrect choices in simulational parameters. To solve these issues, more work is needed in these areas, and the spectroelectrochemical methods used in this thesis needs to be combined with other experimental methods to narrow down the amount of compounds to be modelled. More work is also needed to avoid impurities in the electrolyte. Impurities leads to a thick inorganic layer which prohibits the observation of species in the organic layer.

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