Knowing particularities of soils allows the adoption of sustainable management practices. The most efficient method to obtain data on the soil is through its characterization, essential for planning land use and soil conservation. However, soil surveys conducted in the conventional methods are costly and time-consuming. This study aimed to identify spectral patterns in the mid-IR wavelengths for a quick and low cost characterization of soil classes. Soils from the Natuba river basin, Pernambuco State, Brazil, were used. These soils were mapped on a scale of 1:25,000, where the presence of Latossolos, Argissolos, Gleissolos and Neossolos were identified. The data of reflectance for profiles of each soil class were collected using the spectral range between 2,500 and 25,000 nm. In the mid-IR region, Latossolos and Argissolos presented spectral characteristics peculiar to classification criteria. The increased contents of organic matter and iron oxides reduced soil reflectance. The horizons with sand content above 80% showed strong absorption spectra and significant reflectance peaks of quartz in the mid-IR. The wavelengths 2,681, 2,600 and 2,495 cm-1 occurred only in these horizons. The spectral analysis presented as a high-potential method for the characterization and classification of soils.