Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury is caused primarily by the products of neutrophils recruited into the liver after reperfusion. The mediators responsible for the development of this inflammatory response are thought to be tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1. Although there is abundant evidence to support a role for tumor necrosis factor-α, much less is known about the function of IL-1 in this injury. In the present studies, we investigated whether IL-1 was a critical mediator for the induction of liver inflammation after ischemia/reperfusion. Wild-type and IL-1 receptor I-knockout (IL-1RI−/−) mice were exposed to 90 minutes of partial hepatic ischemia and up to 24 hours of reperfusion. In wild-type mice, IL-1β expression was maximal after ischemia and 8 hours of reperfusion. At the same time, both wild-type and IL-1RI−/− mice had severe liver injury as assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase levels and hepatic histopathology. However, IL-1RI−/− mice had significantly less neutrophil accumulation in liver tissues as measured by liver myeloperoxidase content and histology. The reduction in hepatic neutrophil recruitment in IL-1RI−/− mice was associated with decreased activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB, and reduced expression of the CXC chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2. These data suggest that IL-1 functions to augment neutrophil accumulation, but does not play an essential role in this response.