To identify novel autoantibodies in acquired aplastic anemia (AA), we screened the sera of patients with AA possessing small populations of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)-type cells for the presence of antibodies (Abs) which recognize proteins derived from a leukemia cell line, UT-7. Immunoblotting using proteins derived from lysates or culture supernatants of UT-7 cells revealed the presence of IgG Abs specific to an 80-kDa protein. Peptide mass fingerprinting identified this 80-kDa protein as moesin. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant moesin showed high titers of antimoesin Abs in 25 (37%) of 67 patients with AA. Moesin was secreted from several myeloid leukemia cell lines other than UT-7, such as OUN-1 and K562, as an exosomal protein. The presence of antimoesin Abs was significantly correlated with the presence of PNH-type cells and antidiazepam-binding inhibitor-related protein-1 (DRS-1) Abs. Patients with AA that did not show any of these 3 markers tended to respond poorly to immunosuppressive therapy. These findings suggest that a B-cell response to moesin, possibly derived from hematopoietic cells, frequently occurs in patients with AA and that detection of antimoesin Abs in combination with other markers may be useful in diagnosing immune pathophysiology in patients with AA.