Samples of Anopheles gambiae s.1. were collected from eight localities belonging to four of the five main ecological strata of Ghana. Analysis of ovarian polytene chromosomes revealed the presence of A. gambiae s.s. in all the sites studied, while A. arabiensis was detected only in the extreme northern locality of Navrongo and A. melas in some southern sites. Anopheles arabiensis showed a degree of inversion polymorphism comparable to the one observed in other West African countries. The analysis of the chromosomal polymorphism of A. gambiae s.s. showed the presence of the FOREST form in the rain forest localities and the SAVANNA form in the coastal savanna sites. The MOPTI form occurred sympatrically with the SAVANNA form in the northernmost locality. The possible influence of the presence of various taxa of the A. gambiae complex and of their intra-specific variants on malaria vectorial system is discussed.