Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the main cause of end-stage renal disease. DN is a complex disease mediated by genetic and environmental factors, and many cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in renal damage in diabetes. There are no biomarkers that reflect the severity of the underlying renal histopathological changes and can effectively predict the progression of renal damage and stratify the risk of DN among individuals with diabetes mellitus. Current therapeutic strategies are based on the strict control of glucose and blood pressure levels and, although there are new anti-diabetic drugs, these treatments only retard renal damage progression, being necessary novel therapies. In this Special Issue, there are several comprehensive reviews and interesting original papers covering all these topics, which would be of interest to the growing number of readers of the Journal of Clinical Medicine .