The difficulties of access and detailed measurements of land surface temperature (LST) and water surface temperature (WST) especially in wetlands made the use of remote sensing data as one of the sources and techniques to estimate many climate elements including surface temperature and surface emissivity (ɛ). This study aims to estimate the surface temperature of the wetland of Lake Oubeira located in northeastern Algeria and their spatiotemporal evolution in both land and water. Landsat OLI-TIRS images in two dates (April and September 2016) obtained from the USGS have been used in this work, and forms the basis of a series of operations to obtain the final LST: development of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), conversion of the digital number (DN) of the thermal infrared band (TIR) into spectral radiance as well as the calculation of the effective luminosity temperature of the sensor from the spectral radiation and surface emissivity (ɛ). The results show that the LST varies in space and time (from 16 to 31°C in April and from 24 to 41°C in September). This implies that the absorption of the equilibrium temperature at land cover depends on the optical properties of the surface, which are essentially determined by its water content, colour and morphology. At the same time, the water surface is the lowest land cover temperature, which also has a spatial variation (from 19 to 25°C in April and from 26 to 34.5°C in September) induced by atmospheric temperature, wind direction and speed and the depth of the lake.