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Spatial organization enhances versatility and specificity in cyclic di-GMP signaling

Authors
  • Kunz, Sandra1, 2
  • Graumann, Peter L.1, 2
  • 1 SYNMIKRO, LOEWE-Zentrum für Synthetische Mikrobiologie, Hans-Meerwein-Straße , (Germany)
  • 2 Universität Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Straße 4 , (Germany)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biological Chemistry
Publisher
Walter de Gruyter GmbH
Publication Date
Oct 15, 2020
Volume
401
Issue
12
Pages
1323–1334
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1515/hsz-2020-0202
Source
De Gruyter
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

The second messenger cyclic di-GMP regulates a variety of processes in bacteria, many of which are centered around the decision whether to adopt a sessile or a motile life style. Regulatory circuits include pathogenicity, biofilm formation, and motility in a wide variety of bacteria, and play a key role in cell cycle progression in Caulobacter crescentus. Interestingly, multiple, seemingly independent c-di-GMP pathways have been found in several species, where deletions of individual c-di-GMP synthetases (DGCs) or hydrolases (PDEs) have resulted in distinct phenotypes that would not be expected based on a freely diffusible second messenger. Several recent studies have shown that individual signaling nodes exist, and additionally, that protein/protein interactions between DGCs, PDEs and c-di-GMP receptors play an important role in signaling specificity. Additionally, subcellular clustering has been shown to be employed by bacteria to likely generate local signaling of second messenger, and/or to increase signaling specificity. This review highlights recent findings that reveal how bacteria employ spatial cues to increase the versatility of second messenger signaling.

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