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Spatial distribution and exposure risks of ambient chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Tokyo Bay area and network approach to source impacts.

  • Ohura, Takeshi1
  • Horii, Yuichi2
  • Yamashita, Nobuyoshi3
  • 1 Faculty of Agriculture, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Nagoya 468-8502, Japan. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Japan)
  • 2 Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 3 Environmental Management Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569, Japan. , (Japan)
Published Article
Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2018
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.09.037
PMID: 28993023


Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) receive increasing attention as hazardous pollutants in terms of the high environmental persistence and toxicities. Ambient concentrations of 24 ClPAHs and 24 PAHs were investigated at 14 sites in the Tokyo Bay area of Japan. Twelve of 18 ClPAH species were detected in air samples, in spite of small sampling volumes. Mean concentrations of total PAHs in gas and particle phases were 5400 and 1400 pg/m3, and mean concentrations of total ClPAHs in gas and particle phases were 40 and 14 pg/m3, respectively. The spatial distributions of both total ClPAH and PAH concentrations indicated heavy pollution at sites in industrial activity areas. Principal component analysis suggested that the dominant sources of gaseous and particulate ClPAHs differed substantially from each other. In particular, gaseous ClPAHs could be produced by specific sources different from those of particulate ClPAHs. However, the dominant sources of particulate ClPAHs could be the same as those of particulate PAHs, including industrial activities such as steel and gas-production plants and natural gas-fired power plants. The influences of spatial relationships among sampling sites were represented using a network analysis. The constructed network showed that ambient ClPAHs and PAHs were dominated by local rather than regional pollution, because there were weaker relationships among nearby sites. Finally, exposure risks for ClPAHs were dominated by 7-chlorobenz[a]anthracene, followed by 9-chlorophenanthrene and 6-chlorobenzo[a]pyrene, and total risk was ∼1/200 that of PAHs.

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