Groundwater contamination is a global problem that has a significant impact on human health and ecological services. Studies reported in this special issue focus on contaminants in groundwater of geogenic and anthropogenic origin distributed over a wide geographic range, with contributions from researchers studying groundwater contamination in India, China, Pakistan, Turkey, Ethiopia, and Nigeria. Thus, this special issue reports on the latest research conducted in the eastern hemisphere on the sources and scale of groundwater contamination and the consequences for human health and the environment, as well as technologies for removing selected contaminants from groundwater. In this article, the state of the science on groundwater contamination is reviewed, and the papers published in this special issue are summarized in terms of their contributions to the literature. Finally, some key issues for advancing research on groundwater contamination are proposed.