Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) has many beneficial physiological functions ranging from enhancing fatty acid catabolism, improving insulin sensitivity, inhibiting inflammation and increasing oxidative myofibers allowing for improved athletic performance. Thus, given the potential for targeting PPARbeta/delta for the prevention and/or treatment of diseases including diabetes, dyslipidemias, metabolic syndrome and cancer, it is critical to clarify the functional role of PPARbeta/delta in cell proliferation and associated disorders such as cancer. However, there is considerable controversy whether PPARbeta/delta stimulates or inhibits cell proliferation. This review summarizes the literature describing the influence of PPARbeta/delta on cell proliferation, with an emphasis toward dissecting the data that give rise to opposing hypotheses. Suggestions are offered to standardize measurements associated with these studies so that interlaboratory comparisons can be accurately assessed.