In mammals, macrophages (MF) are present in virtually all tissues where they serve many different functions linked primarily to the maintenance of homeostasis, innate defense against pathogens, tissue repair and metabolism. Although some of these functions appear common to all tissues, others are specific to the homing tissue. Thus, MF become adapted to perform particular functions in a given tissue. Accordingly, MF express common markers but also sets of tissue-specific markers linked to dedicated functions. One of the largest pool of MF in the body lines up the wall of the gut. Located in the small intestine, Peyer's patches (PP) are primary antigen sampling and mucosal immune response inductive sites. Surprisingly, although markers of intestinal MF, such as F4/80, have been identified more than 30 years ago, MF of PP escaped any kind of phenotypic description and remained "unknown" for decades. In absence of MF identification, the characterization of the PP mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) functions has been impaired. However, taking into account that PP are privileged sites of entry for pathogens, it is important to understand how the latter are handled by and/or escape the PP MPS, especially MF, which role in killing invaders is well known. This review focuses on recent advances on the PP MPS, which have allowed, through new criteria of PP phagocyte subset identification, the characterization of PP MF origin, diversity, specificity, location and functions.