The aim of this study was to determine somatotypological characteristics of 4619 rural schoolchildren (RSC) aged 7-17 years, resulting from the rate of biological development and conditions of residence. It was found that most RSC had age-appropriate rate of development. Among the extreme variants most frequently recorded were: retarded rate of maturation in boys and anticipatory rate of maturation rate in girls. RSC of asthenoid somatotype were characterized by the lag of biological age from the calendar age, while RSC of muscular and digestive body types, on the contrary, had an accelerated development. RSC had somatotypological characteristics that distinguished them from the urban schoolchildren, which is due to the specific conditions of life, in particular, agricultural activity that promotes physical activity and prevalence of schoolchildren with muscular somatotype among both boys and girls. However, equal proportions of children with digestive constitution among urban and RSC highlight the negative impact of factor of nutrition.