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Somatic classification of neonates based on birth weight, length, and head circumference: quantification of the effects of maternal BMI and smoking.

Authors
  • Voigt, Manfred
  • Zels, Krisztina
  • Guthmann, Florian
  • Hesse, Volker
  • Görlich, Yvonne
  • Straube, Sebastian
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Publisher
Walter de Gruyter GmbH
Publication Date
May 01, 2011
Volume
39
Issue
3
Pages
291–297
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2011.017
PMID: 21526885
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

We defined neonates as small, appropriate, or large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, LGA) based on birth weight, length, and head circumference. We analyzed the effects on the somatic classification of maternal body mass index (BMI) (<18.5, 18.5-24.99, 25.0-29.99, ≥ 30) and smoking during pregnancy (0, 1-7, 8-14, ≥ 15 cigarettes daily). Data were from the German Perinatal Survey (1998-2000; 433,669 cases). The following refers to the classification by birth weight. In the normal maternal weight population SGA rates increased with cigarette consumption: 9.8%, 17.8%, 21.6%, and 25.4% for non-smokers, and smokers of 1-7, 8-14, and ≥ 15 cigarettes daily, respectively. In non-smoking underweight women the SGA rate was 17.4%. In underweight smokers of ≥ 15 cigarettes daily the SGA rate was 38.5% [odds ratio 5.77, 95% confidence interval 5.10-6.53, compared with normal weight non-smokers]. In the normal maternal weight population, LGA rates were 9.9%, 5.3%, 4.6%, and 3.5% for non-smokers, and smokers of 1-7, 8-14, and ≥ 15 cigarettes daily, respectively. In the obese, LGA rates were 20.9% (non-smokers) and 11.4% (≥ 15 cigarettes). Similar findings were obtained for the somatic classifications based on birth length and head circumference. Results for the various combinations of maternal BMI and smoking status in the three classification systems are described. Our findings may assist in individualized risk assessment for SGA and LGA births.

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