A single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of the effect of cooling down to 100 K on the β-form of chlorpropamide, 4-chloro-N-(propylaminocarbonyl)benzenesulfonamide, has revealed reversible phase transitions at ∼257 K and between 150 and 125 K: β (Pbcn, Z' = 1) ⇔ β(II) (P2/c, Z' = 2) ⇔ β(III) (P2/n, a' = 2a, Z' = 4); the sequence corresponds to cooling. Despite changes in the space group and number of symmetry-independent molecules, the volume per molecule changes continuously in the temperature range 100-300 K. The phase transition at ∼257 K is accompanied by non-merohedral twinning, which is preserved on further cooling and through the second phase transition, but the original single crystal does not crack. DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and X-ray powder diffraction investigations confirm the phase transitions. Twinning disappears on heating as the reverse transformations take place. The second phase transition is related to a change in conformation of the alkyl tail from trans to gauche in 1/4 of the molecules, regularly distributed in the space. Possible reasons for the increase in Z' upon cooling are discussed in comparison to other reported examples of processes (crystallization, phase transitions) in which organic crystals with Z' > 1 have been formed. Implications for pharmaceutical applications are discussed.