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Solid Freeform Techniques Application in Bone Tissue Engineering for Scaffold Fabrication

Authors
  • Shivalkar, Saurabh1
  • Singh, Sangeeta1
  • 1 Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT), Allahabad, Department of Applied Science, Devghat, Jhalwa, Allahabad, 211 012, India , Allahabad (India)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Publisher
Korean Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society
Publication Date
Apr 28, 2017
Volume
14
Issue
3
Pages
187–200
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s13770-016-0002-5
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Solid freeform techniques are revolutionising technology with great potential to fabricate highly organized biodegradable scaffolds for damaged tissues and organs. Scaffolds fabricated via Solid freeform (SFF) techniques have more pronounced effect in bone tissue engineering. SFF techniques produce various types of scaffolds from different biomaterials with specific pore size, geometries, orientation, interconnectivity and anatomical shapes. Scaffolds needs to be designed from such biomaterials which can attach directly to natural tissues and mimic its properties, so ideally mechanical properties of scaffolds should be same as that of regenerating tissues for best results. The scaffolds designed without optimized mechanical properties would lead to the reduced nutrition diffusion within tissue engineered constructs (TECs) causing tissue necrosis. These scaffolds are mainly processed from ceramics and polymers like calcium phosphate, polydioxane, €-polycaprolactone, polylactic and polyglycolic acids etc. While, hydrogel scaffolds provide bridge for encapsulated cells and tissues to integrate with natural ECM. Likewise, 2D images from radiography were not sufficient for the prediction of the brain structure, cranial nerves, vessel and architecture of base of the skull and bones, which became possible using the 3D prototyping technologies. Any misrepresentation can lead to fatal outcomes. Biomodelling from these techniques for spinal surgery and preoperative planning are making its way toward successful treatment of several spinal deformities and spinal tumor. In this review we explored laser based and printing SFF techniques following its methodologies, principles and most recent areas of application with its achievements and possible challenges faced during its applications.

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